of June , the National Council for .. l6 This action was also recommended in CONPES () “Plan de expansidn portuaria. surveys. From through , Colombia’s competitiveness ranking by the World Specifically, CONPES put more emphasis on the. Document CONPES of Document CONPES of De scribe any training or capacity‑building programmes for government officials.
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Thus in the data one will observe that the higher the subsidy, the lower the price of the house. Contact Contact Us Help.
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: These results might suggest that the stratification The critical issue is, then, that all [End Page 87] relevant characteristics pertaining to house, neighborhood, and stratum are not observed or measured. Intuitively, their exercise provides a way of calculating how much more people pay for houses located in areas with higher subsidies for public utilities DPS.
Similarly, houses that receive low subsidies or pay contributions are located in higher socioeconomic conpws that is, richer neighborhoods and thus are associated with higher prices. Clearly, from the policy point of view, it seems very important to understand the distortions associated with the cross subsidy system and the dr stratification strategy that cpnpes subsidy assignment.
Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. The results reported in the paper indicate that, in fact, 392 for houses located very close to the boundary, at least 50 percent of the observed characteristics of dwellings are statistically significantly different on both sides of the boundary.
Unobserved variables, for example, would be the provision of public goods at the stratum level or neighborhood characteristics within and across strata. Clearly, for this design to be valid, one would require that subsidies make a discrete jump at the boundaries while neighborhoods continue to change in a smooth manner at the boundaries.
However, in this case, it is clear that considerations about socioeconomic characteristics of houses, households, and neighborhoods are crucial in determining the boundaries. Thus the authors argue that it is plausible 32292 expect characteristics of households and neighborhoods to be quite similar at the boundaries. As a result, the estimate of the effect of the subsidy on housing prices could be biased in this particular example, one would expect the estimate to be downwardly biased in a simple OLS ordinary least squares estimation that does not account for the unobserved characteristics of houses and neighborhoods that are also associated with housing prices.
Subsidies to Households or Distortion of Housing Prices? To deal with this issue, the cojpes implement a type of regression discontinuity design RDD by taking advantage of the stratification system by which households are assigned to one of six socioeconomic strata that are then used to target differential subsidies for public utility services. Intuitively, the authors claim that while there is significant heterogeneity across strata and, as expected, homogeneity within stratum the location 22004 the exact boundaries can be arbitrary to a great extent because a very large number of dwellings were assigned to very few groups six in total.
View freely available titles: In addition, they use their estimates to assess the extent to which the distortions in housing prices associated with the subsidy-stratification system affect final subsidy beneficiaries. In other words, estimating the causal effect of DPS subsidies on housing prices is difficult because houses that receive high subsidies are located in lower socioeconomic strata that is, poorer neighborhoods and thus are associated with lower prices.
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Stratification and Public Utility Services in Colombia: In particular, the estimation strategy consists of using strata boundary dummies to account for any unobserved characteristics shared by houses on either side of the boundary. However, one must be aware of the fact that the key assumption of the regression discontinuity design would be plausible in cases in which boundaries are determined according to characteristics uncorrelated with the independent variables in the hedonic price equation and, in particular, the subsidy, which is the variable of interest and the unobserved error term.
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Therefore, one cannot expect these boundaries to perfectly divide fundamentally different neighborhoods. Conpss both these perspectives, this paper is an important contribution. The basic estimation strategy is to estimate a relatively standard hedonic price model in which public utility subsidies received or paid by a given dwelling have an effect on the price of the house, controlling for a variety of observed characteristics of the house and the neighborhood. Thus, in a sense, the estimation strategy provides the value that individuals place on higher subsidies.
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